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In September 1956, according to four emergency measures formulated by the State Council on the 12-year Long-term Science and Technology Development Plan and the development of novel technologies such as radio electronics, Preparatory Committee of CAS Institute of Electronics was established under the approval by central government. Later 48 technicians were deployed from units such as Beijing Institute of Physics and Changchun Mechanical Electrical Institute, and then the major task began in the rented Building 6 of Large Xiyuan Hostel.

In July 1958, the institute moved into Zhongguancun, and officially opened the Zhongguancun research base. 10 labs were established one by one.

In March 1960, Factory 0305 was established with over 2,000 employees. The subject setup covered almost the whole field of radio electronics at the moment.

On July 12, 1960, the CAS Institute of Electronics was formally established by the fifth CAS Institute Executive Council's approval.

In 1964, according to the unified planning by central government on "construction of the third line", specialization, organization of key power, rational distribution, and to enhance the development of key disciplines, the institute adjusted the structure of R&D. As a result, 902 employees on subjects such as acoustic, electric lines, antennas and radio waves, quantum electronics and solid electronics were separated from the institute. Then new institutes were established with the separated employees, including CAS Institute of Acoustics, Xi'an Institute of Space Radio Technology (the 504th Institute of Ministry of Space Industry), and five contributed institutes, which are Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, the 22nd Institute and 55th Institute of Ministry of Electronics Industry, the 156th Engineering Department (the 771st Institute of MSI), the 701st Engineering Department (Luoyang Institute of Observation and Control).

In August 1965, 236 people from the East Institute of Vacuum Electronics were merged into the Institute of Electronics, and then it had become a specialized institute with vacuum electronics and gas laser as major research directions.

In the late 70s, the institute had opened up some novel areas of research, and mainly engaged in communications and electronic systems, signal and information processing, electromagnetic field and microwave technology, physical electronics and optoelectronics. Thus once again it became an application-oriented multi-disciplinary integrated electronics institute.

After 40-year-plus construction since the establishment, especially the development since the reform and opening of China, four dominant disciplines have been shaped, which include microwave imaging and radar technology, microwave devices and technology, high-power gas laser technology, and micro sensor technology and system.

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